P Hwang and DS Willoughby,
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, May 2018 01
There is clear evidence that endurance exercise training elicits intramuscular adaptations that can lead to elevations in mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative capacity, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated by the activation of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha. This master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis activates nuclear respiratory factors (NRF-1, NRF-2) and mitochondrial transcription factor A, which enables the expansion of mitochondrial size and transcription of mitochondrial DNA. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been identified as a novel supplement that is involved in various physiological processes such as redox modulation, cellular energy metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis and is a potent antioxidant. Since both exercise and supplemental PQQ have mechanisms associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, it is plausible that a differential additive ergogenic benefit with PQQ can ensue. However, there is a major paucity of research exploring the role of PQQ in conjunction with exercise. In this respect, the purpose of the critical literature review will be to present a comprehensive overview of PQQ and the proposed mechanisms underlying mitochondrial biogenesis. Because exercise can instigate the molecular responses indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis, it is plausible that PQQ and exercise may instigate a synergistic response. Key teaching points • Endurance exercise training enables skeletal muscle adaptations that can induce increases in mitochondrial biogenesis, improve oxidative capacity, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial function. • Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been identified as a novel supplement that is involved in physiological processes including redox modulation, cellular energy metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and antioxidant potential. • There is emerging evidence to support that PQQ supplementation can upregulate the molecular signaling responses indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis within skeletal muscle. • If both endurance exercise and PQQ supplementation can elicit increases in the molecular responses indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis, it is possible that both PQQ and exercise may instigate a synergistic ergogenic response. • There is a scarcity of research exploring the possible role of PQQ supplementation with concomitant endurance exercise. Therefore, future research is necessary to investigate the ergogenic potential behind PQQ supplementation in conjunction with endurance exercise.