Firstly, the scientific literature suggests that while we all have different genetics and predispositions toward certain events and/or durations within sport, they don’t necessarily predict your performance. With specific training, muscle fiber type ratios can be swayed (Muscle Fiber Type Transitions with Exercise Training: Shifting Perspectives - PMC), Vo2 max can be trained (VO2max Trainability and High Intensity Interval Training in Humans: A Meta-Analysis - PMC), and although some individuals respond far better to training than others, the notion that there are non-responders to training seems to be a myth (https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1113/JP273480). This is good news. It all means that with training, we can improve our performance in desired areas. Sprint training will improve your sprint capabilities, and long sweet spot intervals will improve lactate buffering.
However, while training can improve our own performance, it does not guarantee you’ll be better than everyone else. You may raise your Vo2 max from 50 to 70, but someone with different genetics may start out at 75 with no training. Some people work for years to get their sprint power from 800 watts to 1,300 watts, but other athletes may still be able to do 1,400 watts off the couch. Everyone can become better at all aspects of endurance training and racing, but if your genetics are not already swayed toward being a world tour sprinter, you’re not becoming a world tour sprinter. Everyone can improve their w/kg, but far from everyone can have a 6 w/kg FTP. Some people respond better to training than others (Individual differences in response to regular physical activity - PubMed), and that’s one of the biggest factors separating pros from amateurs.
To answer your initial question - yes, you can change your rider “phenotype”. You can sway it any way you want with training. However, if you’re not a genetically gifted sprinter, you won’t become the best sprinter in town. The same goes for climbing, TT’s, FTP, and everything else. If you want to maximise your performance as a cyclist regardless of type (i.e. climber, sprinter, time trialist etc.), you need to find out what you’re naturally good at and work specifically on that. Maybe, however, you just really like sprinting. In that case, train your sprint. It will improve with time. You’ll become a much better sprinter than you were before, and hopefully, that enriches your cycling experience. Just keep in mind that if you’re not genetically gifted in sprinting specifically, some dude may still roll up to his first crit and outsprint you. That’s genetics.
Personally, I can’t sprint to save my life. I could train for the 100m dash all my life, and a Justin Gatlin from a separate universe who never trained sprinting a day in his life would still absolutely destroy me.