There are two different issues at play here: fit, and feel. Fit results from geometry: seat and bar positions relative to the bottom bracket axis (assuming fixed crank arm length). If you can bring the relative positions of these three parts to be equal between two bikes, you will get the same fit. Feel also results from geometry - but not directly connected to the rider: front wheel trail, BB height over the ground, chainstay length, stem length, etc, which all affect handling. Feel also results from stiffness (or lack thereof) in the various elements of the bike - wheels, rear triangle, BB, fork, laterally and longitudinally. There’s a link between these two - if you need a really long stem to get your bars in the right position, that will change the handling.
You select feel by selecting a bike model; you select fit by selecting a size. The first one is highly subjective, the second highly objective. Having bought used bikes a few times, I would pick the models I was interested in, look up the geometry of each, pick the correct size in each model (with reach and stack being the dominant numbers to look at), and go searching.